One of the phrases used in describing successful outsourcing relationships is that the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) provider becomes an extension of its customers’ manufacturing operations. While that represents the most common sign that the outsourcing relationship is aligned in ways that promote efficiency and cost reduction, it is not the only model. In some cases, EMS providers become their customers’ complete manufacturing operation, freeing up their customers’ capital for investment in R&D and marketing. In other cases, the EMS company provides additional value-added services that help its customers more easily expand to global markets or improve logistics efficiency. The common thread in all these examples is an outsourcing solution that helps eliminate specific customer challenges. This whitepaper looks at four examples of ways the outsourcing partnership has been tailored to address customer-specific challenges.